Petros Karadjias/Associated Press
Petros Karadjias/Associated Press
ATHENS, Greece – A conversation in struggling Greece is, often as not, about the superlatives of doom: The country is on the edge, the people are headed toward catastrophe and the state, drained of cash and lasting political consensus, has effectively ceased to function.
Yet in Athens, home to nearly half the population, the garbage trucks make the rounds at night, traffic police in smart blue uniforms pull over drivers and tourists stroll around the ancient sites or lug suitcases on wheels through the heat-soaked side streets.
For a country where crisis has become an intimate state of mind, there is plenty of benign normalcy around, lots of reminders of the rules and infrastructure and hygiene standards that define what it is to be a Western European country, imperfections notwithstanding.
Greece’s election last week ultimately may not deliver a way out of economic stagnation and the chronic uncertainty that threatens to rattle the global economy, but the near-total absence of violence at the polls and the pro forma concession speeches of the defeated candidates spoke to a system that, in the broadest sense, works.
There is the potential, however, for one of Europe’s weakest states to sink deeper into failure, even if it does not come close to the dire indicators, including endemic violence, that define Somalia, Yemen and other countries viewed as “failed states” by academics and policymakers. The election winner, the New Democracy party, sought a coalition government aimed at keeping Greece in Europe’s monetary union. But political stability and economic recovery is far from assured, unemployment is at a record 22 percent, public services are strained and many Greeks are buckling under austerity measures imposed by international lenders in exchange for bailout funds.
“There are many different ways that you can fail as a state,” said Harris Mylonas, author of The Politics of Nation-Building, a book about state efforts to assimilate refugees and minorities. He stressed that Greece was more susceptible to perceptions and accusations of failure than more troubled countries because it was accustomed to higher standards, the result of decades of integration with wealthy European democracies after the end of military rule between 1967 and 1974.
On Monday, The Fund for Peace, a Washington-based research group, released its annual “Failed States Index,” which measures the political, economic and social pressures on nations around the world. It rated Greece as “stable” but declining, at 138 out of 177 countries, with No. 1 Somalia judged to be the most-troubled country and highest-ranked Finland seen as the most successful. As a state, Greece was considered in vastly better shape than emerging powers Russia (No. 83) and Turkey (No. 85). Criteria include poverty, state legitimacy, deterioration of public services, refugee movements and demographic pressures.
“The term ‘state failure’ is one that is thrown around a little too easily when it comes to countries like Greece,” J.J. Messner, a senior associate at The Fund for Peace, wrote in an email. “Yes, Greece’s economy is experiencing significant hardship, but it is still a relatively functional country, is democratic, most (though, perhaps, rapidly fewer) have a decent standard of living and the country is at very little risk of conflict.”